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What is Vitamin B2 ?
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is a water soluble essential nutrient important for regulating cell growth, proliferation, energy metabolism and cellular respiration.
In the human body, vitamin B2 is converted into two primary enzymes required for the synthesis of red blood cells, the production of antibodies in the immune system and the breakdown of fat, carbohydrates and proteins.
If you do not have enough of this vitamin in your diet, it can lead to vision, skin, nail and hair growth problems, impaired cognitive function, low energy levels or inflammation.
Most people can get enough of this nutrient to prevent deficiencies. However, there may be cases where supplementation with additional sources of vitamin B2 may be beneficial to your health.
This supplement was used as a preventive measure to prevent migraine headaches. It is also used as a supplement to aging, promoting detoxification, lowering homocysteine levels and maintaining visual health.
This article will discuss how vitamin B2 works in the body, common uses, health benefits, deficiencies, sources of food and supplements, safety and side effects, and potential interactions.
Vitamin B2 is a group B complex vitamin that is commonly found in dietary supplements as riboflavin. Supplements may also contain riboflavin 5′-phosphate sodium.
Many plants and animals can produce this important trace element endogenously, but not humans. Vitamin B2 is important to people, which means we need to get it from foods or supplements.
Like other members of the Group B Vitamin Complex , riboflavin is used to make the main body fuel, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). It is also important for facilitating healthy adrenal function and maintaining nervous system function.
It is primarily found in the human body as a component of flavocoenzymes, such as flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
These coenzymes are then used in flavoproteins, which have many functions in the body.
Riboflavin is required for the proper functioning and growth of cells and for the activation of other nutrients, especially other B vitamins.
Data from new clinical trials indicate that riboflavin supplementation has antioxidant effects. It has been shown to inhibit free radical cell damage and can help eliminate this damage.
Vitamin B2 is thought to play an important role in protecting the eyes from oxidative stress. Free radical damage can cause corneal changes, resulting in cataracts.
Cataracts are eye disorders in which the lens gradually becomes opaque or cold. This often results in visual impairment and in all cases blindness.
How Does Vitamin B2 Work in the Human Body?
According to the University of Maryland Medical Center (UMM), riboflavin is commonly found in the body as a coenzyme, which means it is needed by protein-based enzymes.
The main role of vitamin B2 is to produce two cofactors required for the normal functioning of many different enzymes. These two cofactors are flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN).
FAD and FMN are used in many enzymatic reactions of flavoproteins. They act as electron carriers in redox reactions related to energy metabolism.
These enzymes are particularly important for redox chemistry involving the oxidation of fatty acids.
Vitamin B2 is Important Because It:
- Contributes to ATP metabolism, maintains energy levels
- Helps cells grow and function
- Maintain eye and skin health
- Helps maintain healthy blood cells
- Reduces free radical damage
Dr. Ax notes that riboflavin works synergistically with other vitamins in the B complex. For example, this vitamin is important for roads involving Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) such as vitamin B9 (folate) and vitamin B3 (niacin).
Dr. Ax says that this vitamin should come mainly from organic food sources or from a high-quality multivitamin product that also contains ingredients from other family members in Group B.
UMM says that B vitamins are very important for human health. They play an important role in the health of the heart, skin, eyes, blood and nerves.
Group B vitamin complex supplements used for hormone balance, metabolismui and digestive health.
All B vitamins are water soluble and fat insoluble. This means that they are not stored in fat cells and do not form solutions with lipid molecules in the body.
Unlike fat-soluble vitamins like vitamin D, the human body cannot store these molecules for future use. Only vitamin b12 large amounts of the body are stored.
All other vitamins in the Group B Complex should be taken regularly to maintain proper intake. Dr. Ax says that consuming fresh, vitamin B2-rich foods every day can help ensure proper availability and facilitate its various physiological roles.
The Benefits of Vitamin B2
Vitamin B2 supplements are designed to promote higher energy levels, athleticism, stress relief and mood balance. However, more research is needed to determine the additional effects of B2.
Riboflavin is needed by the body to break down foods into the right forms of energy and produce ATP. For this reason, it is sometimes used as an energy boosting product.
However, it is not known whether intake of this vitamin can increase the energy level of people who are already consuming enough of this vitamin to prevent deficiencies.
Riboflavin also affects thyroid function and adrenal function. This reduces fatigue and promotes physical performance.
B2 is important for hormone balance. Lack of this vitamin in your diet increases your risk of developing thyroid dysfunction / disease. However, it is not known whether increasing intake will increase thyroid hormone levels or increase metabolism.
Dr. Ax says riboflavin is “useful in soothing the nervous system, fighting chronic stress, and regulating hormones that control appetite, energy, mood, temperature, etc.”
These claims have not been evaluated by the FDA. More research is needed to determine whether these vitamins are used for these purposes or not.
Vitamin B2 in Food Sources
According to dr. Axo, some of the best foods to boost your vitamin B2 content, are brewer’s yeast, green leafy vegetables, raw milk and cheese, eggs, liver, kidneys, almonds, legumes and mushrooms.
Vegetables like broccoli, cauliflower and Brussels sprouts are also good sources of riboflavin. There are many other foods that contain this vitamin.
It is commonly found in foods as flavin mononucleotide (riboflavin-5′-phosphate) and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Only 10% of foods are in other forms such as free riboflavin, glycosides and esters.
Here are some good sources of food with the appropriate amount in milligrams per serving:
- Beef, Chicken, Lamb, Veal and Turkey Liver: 3.9 mg / 100 g.
- Seaweed: 2.5 mg / 1 cup
- Kidney for lamb and lamb: 2.5 mg / 100 g
- Shellfish and cuttlefish: 1.5 mg / 100 g.
- Organic Feta Cheese: 1.3 mg / 1 cup
- Almonds: 1 mg / 1 cup
- Grass & Beef: 0.87 mg / 100g.
- Mackerel: 0.49 mg / 100 g
- 1 big egg: 0.26 mg
It does not reduce riboflavin in the cooking process (cooking, cooking), but it is destroyed by sunlight.
Dr. Ax recommends protecting these foods from any light source.
Vitamin B2 Supplements
It is recommended that vitamin B2 be obtained from fresh organic fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy sources where possible.
However, this is not possible for some people and in these cases it may be useful to use high quality supplements.
There are many different supplements containing riboflavin, either as a single ingredient or in combination with other vitamins and minerals. It is included in group B vitamins complex . It comes in the form of tablets and capsules.
The most commonly used single-dose riboflavin supplements are between 25, 50 and 100 mg.
Do your research by purchasing and comparing different riboflavin supplements. Look for reputable manufacturers of high quality products.
Note that supplementation with individual B-complex vitamins is not usually recommended. This can cause imbalance with other B vitamins.
It is recommended to balance the intake of all B complex members, as they are known to work together.
Be sure to protect your vitamin B2 supplements from light to maintain their effectiveness.
Recommendations on Riboflavin Dosage
The Food and Nutrition Council of the Institute of Medicine has set the following recommended amounts of Vitamin B2:
- 0.3 milligrams daily for infants 0 to 6 months old
- 0.4 mg daily for infants 7 months to 12 months
- 0.5 mg daily for children 1 to 3 years old
- 0.6 mg / day for children 4 to 8 years old
- 0.9 mg / day for children 9 to 13 years old
- 1.3 mg daily for men 14 years and older
- 1.0 mg / day for women 14-18 years old
- 1.1 mg daily for women over 18
Doses usually range from 25 to 100 mg per day with food.
In cancer prevention studies, riboflavin 80 mg was used for up to 20 months. Other studies have been done at 5 mg daily for up to 9 years.
Various studies of migraine have given 200-400 mg of vitamin B2 daily for up to three months. Some studies have used a much lower dose of 25 mg daily for headache.
The best dose for you should be discussed with your doctor or other qualified healthcare professional.
Side Effects and Interactions
Riboflavin has been granted “Safe” (GRAS) status by the “FDA”. Vitamin B2 supplements have been rated by the NMCD as likely to be safe when taken orally and properly.
The NMCD also evaluates this vitamin as likely to be safe for pregnant and lactating women at the RDA level. It is considered potentially safe when administered orally.
Riboflavin daily intake is not daily (UL). According to the NMCD, high-dose administration has limited potential for harm due to poor intestinal absorption of this vitamin and high rate of excretion.
Vitamin B2 is generally well tolerated as a dietary supplement. High doses can cause diarrhea or turn urine orange.
Some drugs that may interact with vitamin B2 include anticholinergics, phenobarbital, probenecid, and tetracyclic antibiotics.
Some medications that can affect vitamin B2 include antibiotics, thorazine (chlorpromazine), Rubex (doxorubicin) and oral contraceptives.
Bright psillium, boron, iron and folic acid can also affect the uptake of vitamin B2 in the body.
For a specific health purpose, consult your doctor about vitamin B2 supplementation. Talk to your doctor before using this supplement if you are taking prescription drugs and / or have any medical conditions.
- University of Maryland Medical Center. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin). Accessed Dec. 17, 2016.
- Vitamin B2. Accessed Dec. 17, 2016
- Weil. Vitamin B2 for Adrenal Health. Accessed Dec.17, 2016
- Axe. Vitamin B2 / Riboflavin: Benefits, Sources, & Deficiency. Accessed Dec. 17, 2016.
- Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Monologue. Accessed Dec. 18, 2016.
- Oregon State University Linus Pauling Institute. Riboflavin: Deficiency.
- US National Library of Medicine. Medline Plus. Riboflavin.